Robert L. Blum, MD, PhD




AI: Future of Humanity

Sphere of Interest

WebBrain: AI
neurosci psych

Stanford Brain Lecture Notes

The RX Project:
Robotic Discovery

CV Biblio (1985)


Index of Essays

Psychology &
Neuroscience brain-icon

Computer Science,
Robotics, and AI

Health & Biotech

Earth Wisdom: Universe

Be Saved by Bob!!!
(And Other Balms )

Optimal Nutrition:
Are Fats Killers
or Saviors?


Consciousness Video:
Who, What, When?

Stan Dehaene's
Consciousness & Brain

Near Death Experiences: In the Desert With Pim Van Lommel

Fine-Tuned for Life?

Neuron Videos Say
Forget Realistic AI

EUV 2014 - Future of Moore's Law

BAM: Brain Activity Map of Spikes

Beating Jeopardy!
What is Watson?
AI Overlord or Tool?

SETI: Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

KEPLER Seeks Earth-like Worlds

STEVE PINKER in the Amazon: photos

Billion Year Plan:
AI Formulation

AI Awakens

CONSCIOUSNESS as Global Resonance

SEAN's Accident

Coronary Artery
CT Scan: Yes!

Book Review: TRANSCEND

Book Review:
Create a Mind

Does Drug X


Total Recall:
Everything, Always

Ralph Triumphs:
Elbot Cheers

Scientists &
Evangelicals Unite

Thomas Berry,
Geologian: Obituary

Calorie Restriction
Works in Monkeys!

TheBrain &
WebBrain: Review




     In 2009 I reviewed the just released health book TRANSCEND
by Ray Kurzweil and Terry Grossman.  While I recommended the book
in an review (low-calorie diet, exercise, and relaxation are
good things),  a major concern was their one-sided discussion of
various nutritional supplements. (My review received over 800 positive votes.)


            How does one know that a drug, vitamin, or nutritional supplement really works?

I showed how the arduous process of evaluating medical evidence works in my essay

 - Does Drug X Really Work? If you want to know what an A, B, or C Evidence Grade
means, read that essay (or just click Evidence Grade).


            For those readers who just want the bottom line I will show the evidence grades

that the Natural Standard has assigned to some of the nutritional supplements mentioned in TRANSCEND.  My prior essay discusses the detailed process by which Natural Standard assigns their grades.  Here I'm just providing a quick overview of their recommendations for some common indications - largely to provide balance to Ray's and Terry's enthusiastic endorsements.


            Unfortunately, Natural Standard’s reviews are not available to the public.  However,

if you want to see a careful scientific review of your favorite vitamin or supplement you can look

it up on the website of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM).  This is NCCAM’s A-Z Search Page.


            Omega-3 Fatty Acids  (Fish Oil, EPA, DHA)


                        Fish Oil gets an A Evidence Grade for preventing
cardiovascular disease
in those that have it and for reducing elevated blood pressure.

Fish intake gets a B grade for preventing cardiovascular disease

 in those that don't have it already. (Note: that's fish not fish oil.)

Fish oil gets a C grade for preventing atherosclerosis and strokes and
for preventing restenosis after angioplasty.

It gets Cs and Ds for a host of other diseases  (arrhythmia, cancer, angina, diabetes).

I personally take EPA/DHA.. The American Heart Association and the FDA
both recommend eating fish, especially for those with cardiovascular disease.
(Note: Overfishing and other human-induced ecodisasters are a concern of this website.
Mercury accumulation is also a health concern when eating predator fish.
I eat canned sardines and herring. Mercury toxicity is less worrisome
with these than with larger predators like salmon.)

            (Flash news item as of January 2010: JAMA reports association
of Omega-3 Fatty Acid consumption and preservation of telomere length
You want your chromosomal telomeres to be long. They protect
the integrity of DNA replication.)


            Vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols)


                        Vitamin E gets a D Evidence Grade (!!!) for Cancer Prevention,

Heart Disease Prevention, and Stroke Prevention.  Recall that a D Grade
means fairly good scientific evidence against this use.


                        Vitamin E gets a C grade (unclear or conflicting evidence)
for dozens of indications including atherosclerosis, use as an antioxidant,
prostate cancer prevention.
If you take large amounts of vitamin E
you need to be aware of recent studies that have shown increased deaths.


            TRANSCEND, to their credit, does discuss the studies that caused
vitamin E to fall from grace.  Ray and Terry feel that the studies were biased
and should have administered all the various congeners of vitamin E.
Following these studies, Kaiser Hospitals pulled all high dose vitamin E capsules
off their shelves.  I also threw mine away.


            Vitamin D

                        Vitamin D gets a B grade for Osteoporosis prevention.

(Addendum 2013: Vitamin D has gotten a lot of favorable publicity. I hike with my

shirt off for 30 minutes daily carrying a 15 lb. weight in each hand. Obviously,
UVB is a countervailing concern.)




                        Multivitamins are not listed among either the Natural Standard's

or NCCAM's reviews.  I can see why.  Which do you include and how much of each?

To me the most impressive aspect of decades of clinical research on vitamins is the failure to show any significant benefit. Ray and Terry need to cite the evidence that
shows that large doses of vitamins work.


            I've stopped taking multivitamins. There have been too many studies showing
they are worthless at best and in many cases harmful. (I'm really wary of large doses
of vitamin C - who wants kidney stones?.) Get your vitamins from food!

(Addendum 2013: Calcium is another mineral supplement that's in trouble.
A new study found a 20% increased incidence of death from heart attack
in men taking calcium supplements. Get your calcium from food!)

            Coenzyme Q10

                        Coenzyme Q10 gets a B grade for hypertension (yoga gets an A !).

For dozens of other indications, CoQ10 gets only a C:  chronic fatigue syndrome,

cancer prevention, heart attack prevention, angina, heart failure, Parkinson's.

This is one supplement I've studied a lot, since I take statin drugs to lower my cholesterol.

I am quite convinced that statins lower your plasma level of CoQ10

and that taking CoQ10 raises it. The real question is whether intramitochondrial

CoQ10 is lowered enough in statin patients to cause symptoms.

I'm not certain but this drug is part of my daily regimen.  If I didn’t take statins, I wouldn’t take it.

By the way, if your doctor advises you to take statins for high LDL-cholesterol, I would
recommend doing so. Athersclerosis is the number one killer in the USA and
statins indisputably reduce mortality. See my extensive essay on this and on dietary fat.

            Grape Seed Extract

                        Grape Seed Extract gets A grades for edema and for chronic venous insufficiency and B grades for vascular fragility and prevention of diabetic retinopathy.

However, for cancer prevention and as an antioxidant it merits only a C.  (I tried to take this capsule a few years ago and had to stop - it felt like a bomb going off in my esophagus.)


            Alpha-Lipoic Acid

                        Alpha-Lipoic Acid rates a B for angina and peripheral vascular disease

but only a C for dementia, depression, exercise performance, fatigue, and memory.

I had high hopes for this drug since I'm generally a fan of UC Berkeley’s Bruce Ames whose research backs it.  Ames has studied mitochondrial function for years and founded a company, Juvenon, that sells Alpha-Lipoic Acid in combination with Acetyl-L-carnitine, another drug on the TRANSCEND list.  Since I'm always looking for a safe energy or cognitive enhancer, I tried Juvenon. It seemed to work for a few days then I was back to baseline.

This seems to be another drug that works in the lab but doesn't stand up to prolonged clinical scrutiny.



                        Resveratrol merits only a C grade for prevention of cardiovascular disease and breast cancer, and as an anti-aging tonic. I do not take this drug, although I'm very interested in research done at Sirtris  by David Sinclair of Harvard that showed life extension in a variety of lab animals when given huge doses.  Sirtris was acquired by Glaxo for 700 million dollars.

Since then the whole world is watching and drinking red wine.  I don't.




            The above Evidence Grades are those assigned by the Natural Standard, whose methodology for reviewing supplements I describe in my accompanying essay:

Does Drug X Really Work?  Since their reviews are not publicly available,
I recommend the reviews done by the NIH’s NCCAM, whose A-Z Search List is Here.


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